Declaring static constants in ES6 classes?

I want to implement constants in a class, because that's where it makes sense to locate them in the code.

So far, I have been implementing the following workaround with static methods:

class MyClass {
    static constant1() { return 33; }
    static constant2() { return 2; }
    // ...
}

I know there is a possibility to fiddle with prototypes, but many recommend against this.

Is there a better way to implement constants in ES6 classes?

Answers:

Answer

Here's a few things you could do:

Export a const from the module. Depending on your use case, you could just:

export const constant1 = 33;

And import that from the module where necessary. Or, building on your static method idea, you could declare a static get accessor:

const constant1 = 33,
      constant2 = 2;
class Example {

  static get constant1() {
    return constant1;
  }

  static get constant2() {
    return constant2;
  }
}

That way, you won't need parenthesis:

const one = Example.constant1;

Babel REPL Example

Then, as you say, since a class is just syntactic sugar for a function you can just add a non-writable property like so:

class Example {
}
Object.defineProperty(Example, 'constant1', {
    value: 33,
    writable : false,
    enumerable : true,
    configurable : false
});
Example.constant1; // 33
Example.constant1 = 15; // TypeError

It may be nice if we could just do something like:

class Example {
    static const constant1 = 33;
}

But unfortunately this class property syntax is only in an ES7 proposal, and even then it won't allow for adding const to the property.

Answer
class Whatever {
    static get MyConst() { return 10; }
}

let a = Whatever.MyConst;

Seems to work for me.

Answer

It is also possible to use Object.freeze on you class(es6)/constructor function(es5) object to make it immutable:

class MyConstants {}
MyConstants.staticValue = 3;
MyConstants.staticMethod = function() {
  return 4;
}
Object.freeze(MyConstants);
// after the freeze, any attempts of altering the MyConstants class will have no result
// (either trying to alter, add or delete a property)
MyConstants.staticValue === 3; // true
MyConstants.staticValue = 55; // will have no effect
MyConstants.staticValue === 3; // true

MyConstants.otherStaticValue = "other" // will have no effect
MyConstants.otherStaticValue === undefined // true

delete MyConstants.staticMethod // false
typeof(MyConstants.staticMethod) === "function" // true

Trying to alter the class will give you a soft-fail (won't throw any errors, it will simply have no effect).

Answer

Maybe just put all your constants in a frozen object?

class MyClass {

    constructor() {
        this.constants = Object.freeze({
            constant1: 33,
            constant2: 2,
        });
    }

    static get constant1() {
        return this.constants.constant1;
    }

    doThisAndThat() {
        //...
        let value = this.constants.constant2;
        //...
    }
}
Answer

Here is one more way you can do

/*
one more way of declaring constants in a class,
Note - the constants have to be declared after the class is defined
*/
class Auto{
   //other methods
}
Auto.CONSTANT1 = "const1";
Auto.CONSTANT2 = "const2";

console.log(Auto.CONSTANT1)
console.log(Auto.CONSTANT2);

Note - the Order is important, you cannot have the constants above

Usage console.log(Auto.CONSTANT1);

Answer

You can create a way to define static constants on a class using an odd feature of ES6 classes. Since statics are inherited by their subclasses, you can do the following:

const withConsts = (map, BaseClass = Object) => {
  class ConstClass extends BaseClass { }
  Object.keys(map).forEach(key => {
    Object.defineProperty(ConstClass, key, {
      value: map[key],
      writable : false,
      enumerable : true,
      configurable : false
    });
  });
  return ConstClass;
};

class MyClass extends withConsts({ MY_CONST: 'this is defined' }) {
  foo() {
    console.log(MyClass.MY_CONST);
  }
}
Answer

If you are comfortable mixing and matching between function and class syntax you can declare constants after the class (the constants are 'lifted') . Note that Visual Studio Code will struggle to auto-format the mixed syntax, (though it works).

class MyClass {
    // ...

}
MyClass.prototype.consts = { 
    constant1:  33,
    constant2: 32
};
mc = new MyClass();
console.log(mc.consts.constant2);    

Answer

I did this.

class Circle
{
    constuctor(radius)
    {
        this.radius = radius;
    }
    static get PI()
    {
        return 3.14159;
    }
}

The value of PI is protected from being changed since it is a value being returned from a function. You can access it via Circle.PI. Any attempt to assign to it is simply dropped on the floor in a manner similar to an attempt to assign to a string character via [].

Answer

I'm using babel and the following syntax is working for me:

class MyClass {
    static constant1 = 33;
    static constant2 = {
       case1: 1,
       case2: 2,
    };
    // ...
}

MyClass.constant1 === 33
MyClass.constant2.case1 === 1

Please consider that you need the preset "stage-0".
To install it:

npm install --save-dev babel-preset-stage-0

// in .babelrc
{
    "presets": ["stage-0"]
}

Update:

currently use stage-3

Answer

In this document it states:

There is (intentionally) no direct declarative way to define either prototype data properties (other than methods) class properties, or instance property

This means that it is intentionally like this.

Maybe you can define a variable in the constructor?

constructor(){
    this.key = value
}
Answer

Like https://stackoverflow.com/users/2784136/rodrigo-botti said, I think you're looking for Object.freeze(). Here's an example of a class with immutable statics:

class User {
  constructor(username, age) {
    if (age < User.minimumAge) {
      throw new Error('You are too young to be here!');
    }
    this.username = username;
    this.age = age;
    this.state = 'active';
  }
}

User.minimumAge = 16;
User.validStates = ['active', 'inactive', 'archived'];

deepFreeze(User);

function deepFreeze(value) {
  if (typeof value === 'object' && value !== null) {
    Object.freeze(value);
    Object.getOwnPropertyNames(value).forEach(property => {
      deepFreeze(value[property]);
    });
  }
  return value;
}
Answer

You can define it like this:

class Foo {
  static MyConst = 200;

  myFunc() {
    const doubleConst = Foo.MyConst * 2;
  }
}
Answer

You could use import * as syntax. Although not a class, they are real const variables.

Constants.js

export const factor = 3;
export const pi = 3.141592;

index.js

import * as Constants from 'Constants.js'
console.log( Constants.factor );
Answer

You can make the "constants" read-only (immutable) by freezing the class. e.g.

class Foo {
    static BAR = "bat"; //public static read-only
}

Object.freeze(Foo); 

/*
Uncaught TypeError: Cannot assign to read only property 'BAR' of function 'class Foo {
    static BAR = "bat"; //public static read-only
}'
*/
Foo.BAR = "wut";

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