How to decode jwt token in javascript without using a library?

How can I decode the payload of JWT using JavaScript? Without a library. So the token just returns a payload object that can consumed by my front-end app.

Example token: xxxxxxxxx.XXXXXXXX.xxxxxxxx

And the result is the payload:

{exp: 10012016 name: john doe, scope:['admin']}

Answers:

Answer

Working unicode text JWT parser function:

function parseJwt (token) {
    var base64Url = token.split('.')[1];
    var base64 = base64Url.replace(/-/g, '+').replace(/_/g, '/');
    var jsonPayload = decodeURIComponent(atob(base64).split('').map(function(c) {
        return '%' + ('00' + c.charCodeAt(0).toString(16)).slice(-2);
    }).join(''));

    return JSON.parse(jsonPayload);
};
Answer

Simple function with try - catch

const parseJwt = (token) => {
  try {
    return JSON.parse(atob(token.split('.')[1]));
  } catch (e) {
    return null;
  }
};

Thanks!

Answer

@Peheje will work, but you will have problem with unicode. To fix it I use the code on https://stackoverflow.com/a/30106551/5277071;

let b64DecodeUnicode = str =>
  decodeURIComponent(
    Array.prototype.map.call(atob(str), c =>
      '%' + ('00' + c.charCodeAt(0).toString(16)).slice(-2)
    ).join(''))

let parseJwt = token =>
  JSON.parse(
    b64DecodeUnicode(
      token.split('.')[1].replace('-', '+').replace('_', '/')
    )
  )


let form = document.getElementById("form")
form.addEventListener("submit", (e) => {
   form.out.value = JSON.stringify(
      parseJwt(form.jwt.value)
   )
   e.preventDefault();
})
textarea{width:300px; height:60px; display:block}
<form id="form" action="parse">
  <textarea name="jwt">eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkrDtGhuIETDs8OoIiwiYWRtaW4iOnRydWV9.469tBeJmYLERjlKi9u6gylb-2NsjHLC_6kZNdtoOGsA</textarea>
  <textarea name="out"></textarea>
  <input type="submit" value="parse" />
</form>

Answer

As "window" object is not present in nodejs environment, we could use the following lines of code :

let base64Url = token.split('.')[1]; // token you get
let base64 = base64Url.replace('-', '+').replace('_', '/');
let decodedData = JSON.parse(Buffer.from(base64, 'base64').toString('binary'));

It's working for me perfectly. Hope it helps.

Answer

you can use pure javascript atob() function to decode token into a string:

atob(token.split('.')[1]);

or parse directly it into a json object:

JSON.parse(atob(token.split('.')[1]));

read about atob() and btoa() built-in javascript functions Base64 encoding and decoding - Web APIs | MDN.

Answer

Both Guy and Peheje already answered the question. For a total beginner like me it was helpful to also have the import line defined in the example.

Also it took me some minutes to figure out that the token is the full set of credentials that gets posted back (the whole JWT token, not just the idToken part of it). Straightforward once you know it..

import jwt_decode from 'jwt-decode';

var token = 'eyJ0eXAiO.../// jwt token';
var decoded = jwt_decode(token);

/*{exp: 10012016 name: john doe, scope:['admin']}*/

Answer

all features of jwt.io doesn't support all languages. In NodeJs you can use

var decoded = jwt.decode(token);
Answer

Simple NodeJS Solution for Decoding a JSON Web Token (JWT)

function decodeTokenComponent(value) {
    const buff = new Buffer(value, 'base64')
    const text = buff.toString('ascii')
    return JSON.parse(text)
}

const token = 'xxxxxxxxx.XXXXXXXX.xxxxxxxx'
const [headerEncoded, payloadEncoded, signature] = token.split('.')
const [header, payload] = [headerEncoded, payloadEncoded].map(decodeTokenComponent)

console.log(`header: ${header}`)
console.log(`payload: ${payload}`)
console.log(`signature: ${signature}`)
Answer

Answer based from GitHub - auth0/jwt-decode. Altered the input/output to include string splitting and return object { header, payload, signature } so you can just pass the whole token.

var jwtDecode = function (jwt) {

        function b64DecodeUnicode(str) {
            return decodeURIComponent(atob(str).replace(/(.)/g, function (m, p) {
                var code = p.charCodeAt(0).toString(16).toUpperCase();
                if (code.length < 2) {
                    code = '0' + code;
                }
                return '%' + code;
            }));
        }

        function decode(str) {
            var output = str.replace(/-/g, "+").replace(/_/g, "/");
            switch (output.length % 4) {
                case 0:
                    break;
                case 2:
                    output += "==";
                    break;
                case 3:
                    output += "=";
                    break;
                default:
                    throw "Illegal base64url string!";
            }

            try {
                return b64DecodeUnicode(output);
            } catch (err) {
                return atob(output);
            }
        }

        var jwtArray = jwt.split('.');

        return {
            header: decode(jwtArray[0]),
            payload: decode(jwtArray[1]),
            signature: decode(jwtArray[2])
        };

    };
Answer

Based on answers here and here:

const dashRE = /-/g;
const lodashRE = /_/g;

module.exports = function jwtDecode(tokenStr) {
  const base64Url = tokenStr.split('.')[1];
  if (base64Url === undefined) return null;
  const base64 = base64Url.replace(dashRE, '+').replace(lodashRE, '/');
  const jsonStr = Buffer.from(base64, 'base64').toString();
  return JSON.parse(jsonStr);
};
Answer

Running Javascript node.js express I had to first install the package as follows:

npm install jwt-decode --save

then in my app.js code get the package:

const jwt_decode = require('jwt-decode');

Then run the code:

let jwt_decoded = jwt_decode(jwt_source);

Then the magic:

console.log('sub:',jwt_decoded.sub);
Answer

You can use jwt-decode, so then you could write:

import jwt_decode from 'jwt-decode';

var token = 'eyJ0eXAiO.../// jwt token';

var decoded = jwt_decode(token);
console.log(decoded);
/*{exp: 10012016 name: john doe, scope:['admin']}*/
Answer

I use this function to get payload , header , exp(Expiration Time), iat (Issued At) based on this answer

function parseJwt(token) {
  try {
    // Get Token Header
    const base64HeaderUrl = token.split('.')[0];
    const base64Header = base64HeaderUrl.replace('-', '+').replace('_', '/');
    const headerData = JSON.parse(window.atob(base64Header));

    // Get Token payload and date's
    const base64Url = token.split('.')[1];
    const base64 = base64Url.replace('-', '+').replace('_', '/');
    const dataJWT = JSON.parse(window.atob(base64));
    dataJWT.header = headerData;

// TODO: add expiration at check ...


    return dataJWT;
  } catch (err) {
    return false;
  }
}

const jwtDecoded = parseJwt('YOUR_TOKEN') ;
if(jwtDecoded)
{
    console.log(jwtDecoded)
}
Answer

I found this code at jwt.io and it works well.

//this is used to parse base64
function url_base64_decode(str) {
  var output = str.replace(/-/g, '+').replace(/_/g, '/');
  switch (output.length % 4) {
    case 0:
      break;
    case 2:
      output += '==';
      break;
    case 3:
      output += '=';
      break;
    default:
      throw 'Illegal base64url string!';
  }
  var result = window.atob(output); //polifyll https://github.com/davidchambers/Base64.js
  try{
    return decodeURIComponent(escape(result));
  } catch (err) {
    return result;
  }
}

In some cases(certain development platforms),
the best answer(for now) faces a problem of invalid base64 length.
So, I needed a more stable way.

I hope it would help you.

Answer
function parseJwt(token) {
  var base64Payload = token.split('.')[1];
  var payload = Buffer.from(base64Payload, 'base64');
  return JSON.parse(payload);
}

let payload= parseJwt("eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiaWF0IjoxNTE2MjM5MDIyfQ.SflKxwRJSMeKKF2QT4fwpMeJf36POk6yJV_adQssw5c");
console.log("payload:- ", payload);
Answer

Here is a more feature-rich solution I just made after studying this question:

const parseJwt = (token) => {
    try {
        if (!token) {
            throw new Error('parseJwt# Token is required.');
        }

        const base64Payload = token.split('.')[1];
        let payload = new Uint8Array();

        try {
            payload = Buffer.from(base64Payload, 'base64');
        } catch (err) {
            throw new Error(`parseJwt# Malformed token: ${err}`);
        }

        return {
            decodedToken: JSON.parse(payload),
        };
    } catch (err) {
        console.log(`Bonus logging: ${err}`);

        return {
            error: 'Unable to decode token.',
        };
    }
};

Here's some usage samples:

const unhappy_path1 = parseJwt('sk4u7vgbis4ewku7gvtybrose4ui7gvtmalformedtoken');
console.log('unhappy_path1', unhappy_path1);

const unhappy_path2 = parseJwt('sk4u7vgbis4ewku7gvtybrose4ui7gvt.malformedtoken');
console.log('unhappy_path2', unhappy_path2);

const unhappy_path3 = parseJwt();
console.log('unhappy_path3', unhappy_path3);

const { error, decodedToken } = parseJwt('eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiaWF0IjoxNTE2MjM5MDIyfQ.SflKxwRJSMeKKF2QT4fwpMeJf36POk6yJV_adQssw5c');
if (!decodedToken.exp) {
    console.log('almost_happy_path: token has illegal claims (missing expires_at timestamp)', decodedToken);
    // note: exp, iat, iss, jti, nbf, prv, sub
}

I wasn't able to make that runnable in StackOverflow code snippet tool, but here's approximately what you would see if you ran that code:

enter image description here

I made the parseJwt function always return an object (to some degree for static-typing reasons).

This allows you to utilize syntax such as:

const { decodedToken, error } = parseJwt(token);

Then you can test at run-time for specific types of errors and avoid any naming collision.

If anyone can think of any low effort, high value changes to this code, feel free to edit my answer for the benefit of next(person).

Answer

If you use Node.JS, You can use the native Buffer module by doing :

const token = 'eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiYWRtaW4iOnRydWUsImp0aSI6ImU3YjQ0Mjc4LTZlZDYtNDJlZC05MTZmLWFjZDQzNzhkM2U0YSIsImlhdCI6MTU5NTg3NzUxOCwiZXhwIjoxNTk1ODgxMTE4fQ.WXyDlDMMSJAjOFF9oAU9JrRHg2wio-WolWAkAaY3kg4';
const base64Url = token.split('.')[1];
const decoded = Buffer.from(base64Url, 'base64').toString();
console.log(decoded)

And you're good to go :-)

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