Switch statement for greater-than/less-than

so I want to use a switch statement like this:

switch (scrollLeft) {
  case (<1000):
   //do stuff
   break;
  case (>1000 && <2000):
   //do stuff
   break;
}

Now I know that either of those statements (<1000) or (>1000 && <2000) won't work (for different reasons, obviously). What I'm asking is the most efficient way to do just that. I hate using 30 if statements, so I'd rather use the switch syntax. Is there anything that I can do?

Answers:

Answer

When I looked at the solutions in the other answers I saw some things that I know are bad for performance. I was going to put them in a comment but I thought it was better to benchmark it and share the results. You can test it yourself. Below are my results (ymmv) normalized after the fastest operation in each browser (multiply the 1.0 time with the normalized value to get the absolute time in ms).

                    Chrome  Firefox Opera   MSIE    Safari  Node
-------------------------------------------------------------------
1.0 time               37ms    73ms    68ms   184ms    73ms    21ms
if-immediate            1.0     1.0     1.0     2.6     1.0     1.0
if-indirect             1.2     1.8     3.3     3.8     2.6     1.0
switch-immediate        2.0     1.1     2.0     1.0     2.8     1.3
switch-range           38.1    10.6     2.6     7.3    20.9    10.4
switch-range2          31.9     8.3     2.0     4.5     9.5     6.9
switch-indirect-array  35.2     9.6     4.2     5.5    10.7     8.6
array-linear-switch     3.6     4.1     4.5    10.0     4.7     2.7
array-binary-switch     7.8     6.7     9.5    16.0    15.0     4.9

Test where performed on Windows 7 32bit with the folowing versions: Chrome 21.0.1180.89m, Firefox 15.0, Opera 12.02, MSIE 9.0.8112, Safari 5.1.7. Node was run on a Linux 64bit box because the timer resolution on Node.js for Windows was 10ms instead of 1ms.

if-immediate

This is the fastest in all tested environments, except in ... drumroll MSIE! (surprise, surprise). This is the recommended way to implement it.

if (val < 1000) { /*do something */ } else
if (val < 2000) { /*do something */ } else
...
if (val < 30000) { /*do something */ } else

if-indirect

This is a variant of switch-indirect-array but with if-statements instead and performs much faster than switch-indirect-array in almost all tested environments.

values=[
   1000,  2000, ... 30000
];
if (val < values[0]) { /* do something */ } else
if (val < values[1]) { /* do something */ } else
...
if (val < values[29]) { /* do something */ } else

switch-immediate

This is pretty fast in all tested environments, and actually the fastest in MSIE. It works when you can do a calculation to get an index.

switch (Math.floor(val/1000)) {
  case 0: /* do something */ break;
  case 1: /* do something */ break;
  ...
  case 29: /* do something */ break;
}

switch-range

This is about 6 to 40 times slower than the fastest in all tested environments except for Opera where it takes about one and a half times as long. It is slow because the engine has to compare the value twice for each case. Surprisingly it takes Chrome almost 40 times longer to complete this compared to the fastest operation in Chrome, while MSIE only takes 6 times as long. But the actual time difference was only 74ms in favor to MSIE at 1337ms(!).

switch (true) {
  case (0 <= val &&  val < 1000): /* do something */ break;
  case (1000 <= val &&  val < 2000): /* do something */ break;
  ...
  case (29000 <= val &&  val < 30000): /* do something */ break;
}

switch-range2

This is a variant of switch-range but with only one compare per case and therefore faster, but still very slow except in Opera. The order of the case statement is important since the engine will test each case in source code order ECMAScript262:5 12.11

switch (true) {
  case (val < 1000): /* do something */ break;
  case (val < 2000): /* do something */ break;
  ...
  case (val < 30000): /* do something */ break;
}

switch-indirect-array

In this variant the ranges is stored in an array. This is slow in all tested environments and very slow in Chrome.

values=[1000,  2000 ... 29000, 30000];

switch(true) {
  case (val < values[0]): /* do something */ break;
  case (val < values[1]): /* do something */ break;
  ...
  case (val < values[29]): /* do something */ break;
}

array-linear-search

This is a combination of a linear search of values in an array, and the switch statement with fixed values. The reason one might want to use this is when the values isn't known until runtime. It is slow in every tested environment, and takes almost 10 times as long in MSIE.

values=[1000,  2000 ... 29000, 30000];

for (sidx=0, slen=values.length; sidx < slen; ++sidx) {
  if (val < values[sidx]) break;
}

switch (sidx) {
  case 0: /* do something */ break;
  case 1: /* do something */ break;
  ...
  case 29: /* do something */ break;
}

array-binary-switch

This is a variant of array-linear-switch but with a binary search. Unfortunately it is slower than the linear search. I don't know if it is my implementation or if the linear search is more optimized. It could also be that the keyspace is to small.

values=[0, 1000,  2000 ... 29000, 30000];

while(range) {
  range = Math.floor( (smax - smin) / 2 );
  sidx = smin + range;
  if ( val < values[sidx] ) { smax = sidx; } else { smin = sidx; }
}

switch (sidx) {
  case 0: /* do something */ break;
  ...
  case 29: /* do something */ break;
}

Conclusion

If performance is important, use if-statements or switch with immediate values.

Answer

An alternative:

var scrollleft = 1000;
switch (true)
{
    case (scrollleft > 1000):
      alert('gt');
      break;
    case (scrollleft <= 1000):
      alert('lt');
      break; 
}

Demo: http://jsfiddle.net/UWYzr/

Answer
switch (Math.floor(scrollLeft/1000)) {
  case 0: // (<1000)
   //do stuff
   break;
  case 1: // (>=1000 && <2000)
   //do stuff;
   break;
}

Only works if you have regular steps...

EDIT: since this solution keeps getting upvotes, I must advice that mofolo's solution is a way better

Answer

You can create a custom object with the criteria and the function corresponding to the criteria

var rules = [{ lowerLimit: 0,    upperLimit: 1000, action: function1 }, 
             { lowerLimit: 1000, upperLimit: 2000, action: function2 }, 
             { lowerLimit: 2000, upperLimit: 3000, action: function3 }];

Define functions for what you want to do in these cases (define function1, function2 etc)

And "evaluate" the rules

function applyRules(scrollLeft)
{
   for(var i=0; i>rules.length; i++)
   {
       var oneRule = rules[i];
       if(scrollLeft > oneRule.lowerLimit && scrollLeft < oneRule.upperLimit)
       {
          oneRule.action();
       }
   }
}

Note

I hate using 30 if statements

Many times if statements are easier to read and maintain. I would recommend the above only when you have a lot of conditions and a possibility of lot of growth in the future.

Update
As @Brad pointed out in the comments, if the conditions are mutually exclusive (only one of them can be true at a time), checking the upper limit should be sufficient:

if(scrollLeft < oneRule.upperLimit)

provided that the conditions are defined in ascending order (first the lowest one, 0 to 1000, and then 1000 to 2000 for example)

Answer

What exactly are you doing in //do stuff?

You may be able to do something like:

(scrollLeft < 1000) ? //do stuff
: (scrollLeft > 1000 && scrollLeft < 2000) ? //do stuff
: (scrollLeft > 2000) ? //do stuff
: //etc. 
Answer

Untested and unsure if this will work, but why not do a few if statements before, to set variables for the switch statement.

var small, big;

if(scrollLeft < 1000){
    //add some token to the page
    //call it small
}


switch (//reference token/) {
  case (small):
   //do stuff
   break;
  case (big):
   //do stuff;
   break;
}
Answer

This is another option:

     switch (true) {
         case (value > 100):
             //do stuff
             break;
         case (value <= 100)&&(value > 75):
             //do stuff
             break;
         case (value < 50):
            //do stuff
             break;
     }
Answer

Updating the accepted answer (can't comment yet). As of 1/12/16 using the demo jsfiddle in chrome, switch-immediate is the fastest solution.

Results: Time resolution: 1.33

   25ms "if-immediate" 150878146 
   29ms "if-indirect" 150878146
   24ms "switch-immediate" 150878146
   128ms "switch-range" 150878146
   45ms "switch-range2" 150878146
   47ms "switch-indirect-array" 150878146
   43ms "array-linear-switch" 150878146
   72ms "array-binary-switch" 150878146

Finished

 1.04 (   25ms) if-immediate
 1.21 (   29ms) if-indirect
 1.00 (   24ms) switch-immediate
 5.33 (  128ms) switch-range
 1.88 (   45ms) switch-range2
 1.96 (   47ms) switch-indirect-array
 1.79 (   43ms) array-linear-switch
 3.00 (   72ms) array-binary-switch
Answer

In my case (color-coding a percentage, nothing performance-critical), I quickly wrote this:

function findColor(progress) {
    const thresholds = [30, 60];
    const colors = ["#90B451", "#F9A92F", "#90B451"];

    return colors.find((col, index) => {
        return index >= thresholds.length || progress < thresholds[index];
    });
}
Answer

I hate using 30 if statements

I had the same situation lately, that's how I solved it:

before:

if(wind_speed >= 18) {
    scale = 5;
} else if(wind_speed >= 12) {
    scale = 4;
} else if(wind_speed >= 9) {
    scale = 3;
} else if(wind_speed >= 6) {
    scale = 2;
} else if(wind_speed >= 4) {
    scale = 1;
}

after:

var scales = [[4, 1], [6, 2], [9, 3], [12, 4], [18, 5]];
scales.forEach(function(el){if(wind_speed > el[0]) scale = el[1]});

And if you set "1, 2, 3, 4, 5" then it can be even simpler:

var scales = [4, 6, 9, 12, 18];
scales.forEach(function(el){if(wind_speed >= el) scale++});

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