What is the use of the JavaScript 'bind' method?

What is the use of bind() in JavaScript?

Answers:

Answer

Bind creates a new function that will have this set to the first parameter passed to bind().

Here's an example that shows how to use bind to pass a member method around that has the correct this:

var Button = function(content) { 
  this.content = content;
};
Button.prototype.click = function() {
  console.log(this.content + ' clicked');
};

var myButton = new Button('OK');
myButton.click();

var looseClick = myButton.click;
looseClick(); // not bound, 'this' is not myButton - it is the global object

var boundClick = myButton.click.bind(myButton);
boundClick(); // bound, 'this' is myButton

Which prints out:

OK clicked
undefined clicked
OK clicked

You can also add extra parameters after the 1st (this) parameter and bind will pass in those values to the original function. Any additional parameters you later pass to the bound function will be passed in after the bound parameters:

// Example showing binding some parameters
var sum = function(a, b) {
  return a + b;
};

var add5 = sum.bind(null, 5);
console.log(add5(10));

Which prints out:

15

Check out JavaScript Function bind for more info and interactive examples.

Update: ECMAScript 2015 adds support for => functions. => functions are more compact and do not change the this pointer from their defining scope, so you may not need to use bind() as often. For example, if you wanted a function on Button from the first example to hook up the click callback to a DOM event, the following are all valid ways of doing that:

Button.prototype.hookEvent(element) {
  // Use bind() to ensure 'this' is the 'this' inside click()
  element.addEventListener('click', this.click.bind(this));
};

Or:

Button.prototype.hookEvent(element) {
  // Use a new variable for 'this' since 'this' inside the function
  // will not be the 'this' inside hookEvent()
  var me = this;
  element.addEventListener('click', function() { me.click() });
}

Or:

Button.prototype.hookEvent(element) {
  // => functions do not change 'this', so you can use it directly
  element.addEventListener('click', () => this.click());
}
Answer

The simplest use of bind() is to make a function that, no matter how it is called, is called with a particular this value.

x = 9;
var module = {
    x: 81,
    getX: function () {
        return this.x;
    }
};

module.getX(); // 81

var getX = module.getX;
getX(); // 9, because in this case, "this" refers to the global object

// create a new function with 'this' bound to module
var boundGetX = getX.bind(module);
boundGetX(); // 81

Please refer this link for more information

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Function/bind

Answer

Variables has local and global scopes. Let's suppose that we have two variables with the same name. One is globally defined and the other is defined inside a function closure and we want to get the variable value which is inside the function closure. In that case we use this bind() method. Please see the simple example below:

var x = 9; // this refers to global "window" object here in the browser
var person = {
  x: 81,
  getX: function() {
    return this.x;
  }
};

var y = person.getX; // It will return 9, because it will call global value of x(var x=9).

var x2 = y.bind(person); // It will return 81, because it will call local value of x, which is defined in the object called person(x=81).

document.getElementById("demo1").innerHTML = y();
document.getElementById("demo2").innerHTML = x2();
<p id="demo1">0</p>
<p id="demo2">0</p>

Answer

Summary:

The bind() method takes an object as an first argument and creates a new function. When the function is invoked the value of this in the function body will be the object which was passed in as an argument in the bind() function.

How does this work in JS anyway

The value of this in javascript is dependent always depends on what Object the function is called. The value of this always refers to the object left of the dot from where is the function is called. In case of the global scope this is window (or global in nodeJS). Only call, apply and bind can alter the this binding differently. Here is an example to show how the this keyword works:

let obj = {
  prop1: 1,
  func: function () { console.log(this); } 
}

obj.func();   // obj left of the dot so this refers to obj

const customFunc = obj.func;  // we store the function in the customFunc obj

customFunc();  // now the object left of the dot is window, 
               // customFunc() is shorthand for window.customFunc()
               // Therefore window will be logged

How is bind used?

Bind can help in overcoming difficulties with the this keyword by having a fixed object where this will refer to. For example:

var name = 'globalName';

const obj = {
  name: 'myName',
  sayName: function () { console.log(this.name);}
}

const say = obj.sayName; // we are merely storing the function the value of this isn't magically transferred

say(); // now because this function is executed in global scope this will refer to the global var

const boundSay = obj.sayName.bind(obj); // now the value of this is bound to the obj object

boundSay();  // Now this will refer to the name in the obj object: 'myName'

Once the function is bound to a particular this value we can pass it around and even put it on properties on other objects. The value of this will remain the same.

Answer

I will explain bind theoretically as well as practically

bind in javascript is a method -- Function.prototype.bind . bind is a method. It is called on function prototype. This method creates a function whose body is similar to the function on which it is called but the 'this' refers to the first parameter passed to the bind method. Its syntax is

     var bindedFunc = Func.bind(thisObj,optionsArg1,optionalArg2,optionalArg3,...);

Example:--

  var checkRange = function(value){
      if(typeof value !== "number"){
              return false;
      }
      else {
         return value >= this.minimum && value <= this.maximum;
      }
  }

  var range = {minimum:10,maximum:20};

  var boundedFunc = checkRange.bind(range); //bounded Function. this refers to range
  var result = boundedFunc(15); //passing value
  console.log(result) // will give true;
Answer

The bind() method creates a new function instance whose this value is bound to the value that was passed into bind(). For example:

   window.color = "red"; 
   var o = { color: "blue" }; 
   function sayColor(){ 
       alert(this.color); 
   } 
   var objectSayColor = sayColor.bind(o); 
   objectSayColor(); //blue 

Here, a new function called objectSayColor() is created from sayColor() by calling bind() and passing in the object o. The objectSayColor() function has a this value equivalent to o, so calling the function, even as a global call, results in the string “blue” being displayed.

Reference : Nicholas C. Zakas - PROFESSIONAL JAVASCRIPT® FOR WEB DEVELOPERS

Answer

Creating a new Function by Binding Arguments to Values

The bind method creates a new function from another function with one or more arguments bound to specific values, including the implicit this argument.

Partial Application

This is an example of partial application. Normally we supply a function with all of its arguments which yields a value. This is known as function application. We are applying the function to its arguments.

A Higher Order Function (HOF)

Partial application is an example of a higher order function (HOF) because it yields a new function with a fewer number of argument.

Binding Multiple Arguments

You can use bind to transform functions with multiple arguments into new functions.

function multiply(x, y) { 
    return x * y; 
}

let multiplyBy10 = multiply.bind(null, 10);
console.log(multiplyBy10(5));

Converting from Instance Method to Static Function

In the most common use case, when called with one argument the bind method will create a new function that has the this value bound to a specific value. In effect this transforms an instance method to a static method.

function Multiplier(factor) { 
    this.factor = factor;
}

Multiplier.prototype.multiply = function(x) { 
    return this.factor * x; 
}

function ApplyFunction(func, value) {
    return func(value);
}

var mul = new Multiplier(5);

// Produces garbage (NaN) because multiplying "undefined" by 10
console.log(ApplyFunction(mul.multiply, 10));

// Produces expected result: 50
console.log(ApplyFunction(mul.multiply.bind(mul), 10));

Implementing a Stateful CallBack

The following example shows how using binding of this can enable an object method to act as a callback that can easily update the state of an object.

function ButtonPressedLogger()
{
   this.count = 0;
   this.onPressed = function() {
      this.count++;
      console.log("pressed a button " + this.count + " times");
   }
   for (let d of document.getElementsByTagName("button"))
      d.onclick = this.onPressed.bind(this);
}

new ButtonPressedLogger();      
<button>press me</button>
<button>no press me</button>

Answer

As mentioned, Function.bind() lets you specify the context that the function will execute in (that is, it lets you pass in what object the this keyword will resolve to in the body of the function.

A couple of analogous toolkit API methods that perform a similar service:

jQuery.proxy()

Dojo.hitch()

Answer
/**
 * Bind is a method inherited from Function.prototype same like call and apply
 * It basically helps to bind a function to an object's context during initialisation 
 * 
 * */

window.myname = "Jineesh";  
var foo = function(){ 
  return this.myname;
};

//IE < 8 has issues with this, supported in ecmascript 5
var obj = { 
    myname : "John", 
    fn:foo.bind(window)// binds to window object
}; 
console.log( obj.fn() ); // Returns Jineesh
Answer

The bind function creates a new function with the same function body as the function it is calling .It is called with the this argument .why we use bind fun. : when every time a new instance is created and we have to use first initial instance then we use bind fun.We can't override the bind fun.simply it stores the initial object of the class.

setInterval(this.animate_to.bind(this), 1000/this.difference);
Answer

Another usage is that you can pass binded function as an argument to another function which is operating under another execution context.

var name = "sample";
function sample(){
  console.log(this.name);
}
var cb = sample.bind(this);

function somefunction(cb){
  //other code
  cb();
}
somefunction.call({}, cb);
Answer

bind is a function which is available in java script prototype, as the name suggest bind is used to bind your function call to the context whichever you are dealing with for eg:

    var rateOfInterest='4%';
    var axisBank=
    {
    rateOfInterest:'10%',
    getRateOfInterest:function()
    {
    return this.rateOfInterest;
    }
    }
    axisBank.getRateOfInterest() //'10%' 


    let knowAxisBankInterest=axisBank.getRateOfInterest // when you want to assign the function call to a varaible we use this syntax
    knowAxisBankInterest(); // you will get output as '4%' here by default the function is called wrt global context

let knowExactAxisBankInterest=knowAxisBankInterest.bind(axisBank);     //so here we need bind function call  to its local context


    knowExactAxisBankInterest() // '10%' 

Answer

bind allows-

  • set the value of "this" to an specific object. This becomes very helpful as sometimes this is not what is intended.
  • reuse methods
  • curry a function

For example, you have a function to deduct monthly club fees

function getMonthlyFee(fee){
  var remaining = this.total - fee;
  this.total = remaining;
  return this.name +' remaining balance:'+remaining;
}

Now you want to reuse this function for a different club member. Note that the monthly fee will vary from member to member.

Let's imagine Rachel has a balance of 500, and a monthly membership fee of 90.

var rachel = {name:'Rachel Green', total:500};

Now, create a function that can be used again and again to deduct the fee from her account every month

//bind
var getRachelFee = getMonthlyFee.bind(rachel, 90);
//deduct
getRachelFee();//Rachel Green remaining balance:410
getRachelFee();//Rachel Green remaining balance:320

Now, the same getMonthlyFee function could be used for another member with a different membership fee. For Example, Ross Geller has a 250 balance and a monthly fee of 25

var ross = {name:'Ross Geller', total:250};
//bind
var getRossFee = getMonthlyFee.bind(ross, 25);
//deduct
getRossFee(); //Ross Geller remaining balance:225
getRossFee(); //Ross Geller remaining balance:200
Answer

From the MDN docs on Function.prototype.bind() :

The bind() method creates a new function that, when called, has its this keyword set to the provided value, with a given sequence of arguments preceding any provided when the new function is called.

So, what does that mean?!

Well, let's take a function that looks like this :

var logProp = function(prop) {
    console.log(this[prop]);
};

Now, let's take an object that looks like this :

var Obj = {
    x : 5,
    y : 10
};

We can bind our function to our object like this :

Obj.log = logProp.bind(Obj);

Now, we can run Obj.log anywhere in our code :

Obj.log('x'); // Output : 5
Obj.log('y'); // Output : 10

This works, because we bound the value of this to our object Obj.


Where it really gets interesting, is when you not only bind a value for this, but also for its argument prop :

Obj.logX = logProp.bind(Obj, 'x');
Obj.logY = logProp.bind(Obj, 'y');

We can now do this :

Obj.logX(); // Output : 5
Obj.logY(); // Output : 10

Unlike with Obj.log, we do not have to pass x or y, because we passed those values when we did our binding.

Answer

Consider the Simple Program listed below,

//we create object user
let User = { name: 'Justin' };

//a Hello Function is created to Alert the object User 
function Hello() {
  alert(this.name);
}

//since there the value of this is lost we need to bind user to use this keyword
let user = Hello.bind(User);
user();

//we create an instance to refer the this keyword (this.name);
Answer

Simple example

function lol(text) {
    console.log(this.name, text);
}

lol(); // undefined undefined
lol('first'); // undefined first
lol.call({name: 'karl'}); // karl undefined
lol.call({name: 'karl'}, 'second'); // karl second
lol.apply({name: 'meg'}); // meg undefined
lol.apply({name: 'meg'}, ['third']); // meg third
const newLol = lol.bind({name: 'bob'});
newLol(); // bob undefined
newLol('fourth'); // bob fourth
Answer

Bind Method

A bind implementation might look something like so:

Function.prototype.bind = function () {
  const self = this;
  const args = [...arguments];
  const context = args.shift();

  return function () {
    return self.apply(context, args.concat([...arguments]));
  };
};

The bind function can take any number of arguments and return a new function.

The new function will call the original function using the JS Function.prototype.apply method.
The apply method will use the first argument passed to the target function as its context (this), and the second array argument of the apply method will be a combination of the rest of the arguments from the target function, concat with the arguments used to call the return function (in that order).

An example can look something like so:

function Fruit(emoji) {
  this.emoji = emoji;
}

Fruit.prototype.show = function () {
  console.log(this.emoji);
};

const apple = new Fruit('????');
const orange = new Fruit('????');

apple.show();  // ????
orange.show(); // ????

const fruit1 = apple.show;
const fruit2 = apple.show.bind();
const fruit3 = apple.show.bind(apple);
const fruit4 = apple.show.bind(orange);

fruit1(); // undefined
fruit2(); // undefined
fruit3(); // ????
fruit4(); // ????

Answer

Simple Explanation:

bind() create a new function, a new reference at a function it returns to you.

In parameter after this keyword, you pass in the parameter you want to preconfigure. Actually it does not execute immediately, just prepares for execution.

You can preconfigure as many parameters as you want.

Simple Example to understand bind:

function calculate(operation) {
  if (operation === 'ADD') {
   alert('The Operation is Addition');
  } else if (operation === 'SUBTRACT') {
   alert('The Operation is Subtraction');
  }
}

addBtn.addEventListener('click', calculate.bind(this, 'ADD'));
subtractBtn.addEventListener('click', calculate.bind(this, 'SUBTRACT'));

Answer

In addition to what have been said, the bind() method allows an object to borrow a method from another object without making a copy of that method. This is known as function borrowing in JavaScript.

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