Preferred technique for javascript namespacing

My code is going to turn into a mess if I don't start using some sort of namespacing technique. I'm relatively new to programming large javascript projects but have significant experience with systems programming in C++/java/python etc.

Basically I'm trying to identify which is the preferred method for creating javascript namespaces, and what the pros/cons are for each method.

For example I could use either of the following three methods:

var proj.lib.layout = {
  "centreElem":     
  function (elem, W, H){

  },

  "getAbsolutePosition":
  function (elem){

  }
};

OR

var proj.lib.layout = {};
(function(){
  var l = proj.lib.layout;

  l.centreElem = function (elem, winW, winH){
    ..
  }

  l.getAbsolutePosition = function (elem){
    ..
  }
})();

OR

var proj.lib.layout = new function(){
  function centreElem(elem, W, H){
    ..
  }

  function getAbsolutePosition(elem){
    ..
  }

  this.centreElem          = centreElem;
  this.getAbsolutePosition = getAbsolutePosition;
} ();

There are other ways to do it too obviously, but these were the first that I've seen and thought of. Can anyone say there is a "best" technique, or at least point me towards some pros/cons from which I can evaluate which is best for me?

Answers:

Answer

Note that you have to create all the intermediary objects before you can assign to a sub-object like that:

window.one.two.three = {}; // fails
window.one = { two: { three: {} } };

Consider writing a namespacing method, so you can unify your namespace code. For example:

window.proj = {};
// n - {String} - A string representing a namespace to create on proj
// returns an object you can assign values to
window.proj.namespace = function(n) { /* ... */ };

(function(NS) {
    NS.myMethod = function() {};
    NS.myOtherMethod = function() {};
    NS.myProperty = "FOO";
})(proj.namespace('lib.layout'));

assert(proj.lib.layout.myProperty === "FOO");
Answer

My preferred method is to have a single object (whose name is usually short, 2-3 characters, and all upper-case) as my namespace in which to contain all other objects.

The method shown below (which corresponds most closely with your second example) also shows how to hide any private functions:

// In this example the namespace is "QP"
if (!QP) {
    var QP = {};
};

// Define all objects inside an closure to allow "private" functions
(function() {

     QP.examplePublicFunction = function() {
         ...
     }

     function examplePrivateFunction() {
         ...
     }

})();

This is the method used by a number of other JavaScript libraries, for example json2.js

I've never really felt the need to subdivide my namespaces into subnamespaces.

Answer

The Google Closure Javascript Library uses this style (which is not exactly like any of your examples)

goog.math.clamp = function(value, min, max) {
  return Math.min(Math.max(value, min), max);
};

I would stick with this simple style. Don't bother with self-executing anonymous function wrappers. The one in your example doesn't actually do anything useful.

Answer

Basically all three examples use the same "namespace" technique, that is, create a basic object (your namespace) and then augment it with your functions.

usually the root namespace is in capital letters:

if (typeof (MYAPP) == "undefined" || !MYAPP) {
    var MYAPP= {}
};

Then you can add functionality to this base object in various ways. In your code you show three of them, but each of them end up with the same result, you can call this two functions:

proj.lib.layout.centreElem(elem, W, H);
proj.lib.layout. getAbsolutePosition(elem);

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