Javascript call() & apply() vs bind()?

I already know that apply and call are similar functions which setthis (context of a function).

The difference is with the way we send the arguments (manual vs array)

Question:

But when should I use the bind() method ?

var obj = {
  x: 81,
  getX: function() {
    return this.x;
  }
};

alert(obj.getX.bind(obj)());
alert(obj.getX.call(obj));
alert(obj.getX.apply(obj));

jsbin

Answers:

Answer

I created this comparison between function objects, function calls, call/apply and bind a while ago:

enter image description here

.bind allows you to set the this value now while allowing you to execute the function in the future, because it returns a new function object.

Answer

Use .bind() when you want that function to later be called with a certain context, useful in events. Use .call() or .apply() when you want to invoke the function immediately, and modify the context.

Call/apply call the function immediately, whereas bind returns a function that, when later executed, will have the correct context set for calling the original function. This way you can maintain context in async callbacks and events.

I do this a lot:

function MyObject(element) {
    this.elm = element;

    element.addEventListener('click', this.onClick.bind(this), false);
};

MyObject.prototype.onClick = function(e) {
     var t=this;  //do something with [t]...
    //without bind the context of this function wouldn't be a MyObject
    //instance as you would normally expect.
};

I use it extensively in Node.js for async callbacks that I want to pass a member method for, but still want the context to be the instance that started the async action.

A simple, naive implementation of bind would be like:

Function.prototype.bind = function(ctx) {
    var fn = this;
    return function() {
        fn.apply(ctx, arguments);
    };
};

There is more to it (like passing other args), but you can read more about it and see the real implementation on the MDN.

Hope this helps.

Answer

They all attach this into function (or object) and the difference is in the function invocation (see below).

call attaches this into function and executes the function immediately:

var person = {  
  name: "James Smith",
  hello: function(thing) {
    console.log(this.name + " says hello " + thing);
  }
}

person.hello("world");  // output: "James Smith says hello world"
person.hello.call({ name: "Jim Smith" }, "world"); // output: "Jim Smith says hello world"

bind attaches this into function and it needs to be invoked separately like this:

var person = {  
  name: "James Smith",
  hello: function(thing) {
    console.log(this.name + " says hello " + thing);
  }
}

person.hello("world");  // output: "James Smith says hello world"
var helloFunc = person.hello.bind({ name: "Jim Smith" });
helloFunc("world");  // output: Jim Smith says hello world"

or like this:

...    
var helloFunc = person.hello.bind({ name: "Jim Smith" }, "world");
helloFunc();  // output: Jim Smith says hello world"

apply is similar to call except that it takes an array-like object instead of listing the arguments out one at a time:

function personContainer() {
  var person = {  
     name: "James Smith",
     hello: function() {
       console.log(this.name + " says hello " + arguments[1]);
     }
  }
  person.hello.apply(person, arguments);
}
personContainer("world", "mars"); // output: "James Smith says hello mars", note: arguments[0] = "world" , arguments[1] = "mars"                                     
Answer

Answer in SIMPLEST form

  • Call invokes the function and allows you to pass in arguments one by one.
  • Apply invokes the function and allows you to pass in arguments as an array.
  • Bind returns a new function, allowing you to pass in a this array and any number of arguments.

Apply vs. Call vs. Bind Examples

Call

var person1 = {firstName: 'Jon', lastName: 'Kuperman'};
var person2 = {firstName: 'Kelly', lastName: 'King'};

function say(greeting) {
    console.log(greeting + ' ' + this.firstName + ' ' + this.lastName);
}

say.call(person1, 'Hello'); // Hello Jon Kuperman
say.call(person2, 'Hello'); // Hello Kelly King

Apply

var person1 = {firstName: 'Jon', lastName: 'Kuperman'};
var person2 = {firstName: 'Kelly', lastName: 'King'};

function say(greeting) {
    console.log(greeting + ' ' + this.firstName + ' ' + this.lastName);
}

say.apply(person1, ['Hello']); // Hello Jon Kuperman
say.apply(person2, ['Hello']); // Hello Kelly King

Bind

var person1 = {firstName: 'Jon', lastName: 'Kuperman'};
var person2 = {firstName: 'Kelly', lastName: 'King'};

function say() {
    console.log('Hello ' + this.firstName + ' ' + this.lastName);
}

var sayHelloJon = say.bind(person1);
var sayHelloKelly = say.bind(person2);

sayHelloJon(); // Hello Jon Kuperman
sayHelloKelly(); // Hello Kelly King

When To Use Each

Call and apply are pretty interchangeable. Just decide whether it’s easier to send in an array or a comma separated list of arguments.

I always remember which one is which by remembering that Call is for comma (separated list) and Apply is for Array.

Bind is a bit different. It returns a new function. Call and Apply execute the current function immediately.

Bind is great for a lot of things. We can use it to curry functions like in the above example. We can take a simple hello function and turn it into a helloJon or helloKelly. We can also use it for events like onClick where we don’t know when they’ll be fired but we know what context we want them to have.

Reference: codeplanet.io

Answer

It allows to set the value for this independent of how the function is called. This is very useful when working with callbacks:

  function sayHello(){
    alert(this.message);
  }

  var obj = {
     message : "hello"
  };
  setTimeout(sayHello.bind(obj), 1000);

To achieve the same result with call would look like this:

  function sayHello(){
    alert(this.message);
  }

  var obj = {
     message : "hello"
  };
  setTimeout(function(){sayHello.call(obj)}, 1000);
Answer

Assume we have multiplication function

function multiplication(a,b){
console.log(a*b);
}

Lets create some standard functions using bind

var multiby2 = multiplication.bind(this,2);

Now multiby2(b) is equal to multiplication(2,b);

multiby2(3); //6
multiby2(4); //8

What if I pass both the parameters in bind

var getSixAlways = multiplication.bind(this,3,2);

Now getSixAlways() is equal to multiplication(3,2);

getSixAlways();//6

even passing parameter returns 6; getSixAlways(12); //6

var magicMultiplication = multiplication.bind(this);

This create a new multiplication function and assigns it to magicMultiplication.

Oh no, we are hiding the multiplication functionality into magicMultiplication.

calling magicMultiplication returns a blank function b()

on execution it works fine magicMultiplication(6,5); //30

How about call and apply?

magicMultiplication.call(this,3,2); //6

magicMultiplication.apply(this,[5,2]); //10

In simple words, bind creates the function, call and apply executes the function whereas apply expects the parameters in array

Answer

Both Function.prototype.call() and Function.prototype.apply() call a function with a given this value, and return the return value of that function.

Function.prototype.bind(), on the other hand, creates a new function with a given this value, and returns that function without executing it.

So, let's take a function that looks like this :

var logProp = function(prop) {
    console.log(this[prop]);
};

Now, let's take an object that looks like this :

var Obj = {
    x : 5,
    y : 10
};

We can bind our function to our object like this :

Obj.log = logProp.bind(Obj);

Now, we can run Obj.log anywhere in our code :

Obj.log('x'); // Output : 5
Obj.log('y'); // Output : 10

Where it really gets interesting, is when you not only bind a value for this, but also for for its argument prop :

Obj.logX = logProp.bind(Obj, 'x');
Obj.logY = logProp.bind(Obj, 'y');

We can now do this :

Obj.logX(); // Output : 5
Obj.logY(); // Output : 10
Answer

bind: It binds the function with provided value and context but it does not executes the function. To execute function you need to call the function.

call: It executes the function with provided context and parameter.

apply: It executes the function with provided context and parameter as array.

Answer

Here is one good article to illustrate the difference among bind(), apply() and call(), summarize it as below.

  • bind() allows us to easily set which specific object will be bound to this when a function or method is invoked.

    // This data variable is a global variable?
    var data = [
        {name:"Samantha", age:12},
        {name:"Alexis", age:14}
    ]
    var user = {
        // local data variable?
        data    :[
            {name:"T. Woods", age:37},
            {name:"P. Mickelson", age:43}
        ],
        showData:function (event) {
            var randomNum = ((Math.random () * 2 | 0) + 1) - 1; // random number between 0 and 1?
            console.log (this.data[randomNum].name + " " + this.data[randomNum].age);
        }
    }
    
    // Assign the showData method of the user object to a variable?
    var showDataVar = user.showData;
    showDataVar (); // Samantha 12 (from the global data array, not from the local data array)?
    /*
    This happens because showDataVar () is executed as a global function and use of this inside 
    showDataVar () is bound to the global scope, which is the window object in browsers.
    */
    
    // Bind the showData method to the user object?
    var showDataVar = user.showData.bind (user);
    // Now the we get the value from the user object because the this keyword is bound to the user object?
    showDataVar (); // P. Mickelson 43?
    
  • bind() allow us to borrow methods

    // Here we have a cars object that does not have a method to print its data to the console?
    var cars = {
        data:[
           {name:"Honda Accord", age:14},
           {name:"Tesla Model S", age:2}
       ]
    }
    
    // We can borrow the showData () method from the user object we defined in the last example.?
    // Here we bind the user.showData method to the cars object we just created.?
    cars.showData = user.showData.bind (cars);
    cars.showData (); // Honda Accord 14?
    

    One problem with this example is that we are adding a new method showData on the cars object and we might not want to do that just to borrow a method because the cars object might already have a property or method name showData. We don’t want to overwrite it accidentally. As we will see in our discussion of Apply and Call below, it is best to borrow a method using either the Apply or Call method.

  • bind() allow us to curry a function

    Function Currying, also known as partial function application, is the use of a function (that accept one or more arguments) that returns a new function with some of the arguments already set.

    function greet (gender, age, name) {
        // if a male, use Mr., else use Ms.?
        var salutation = gender === "male" ? "Mr. " : "Ms. ";
        if (age > 25) {
            return "Hello, " + salutation + name + ".";
        }else {
            return "Hey, " + name + ".";
        }
     }
    

    We can use bind() to curry this greet function

    // So we are passing null because we are not using the "this" keyword in our greet function.
    var greetAnAdultMale = greet.bind (null, "male", 45);
    
    greetAnAdultMale ("John Hartlove"); // "Hello, Mr. John Hartlove."
    
    var greetAYoungster = greet.bind (null, "", 16);
    greetAYoungster ("Alex"); // "Hey, Alex."?
    greetAYoungster ("Emma Waterloo"); // "Hey, Emma Waterloo."
    
  • apply() or call() to set this value

    The apply, call, and bind methods are all used to set the this value when invoking a method, and they do it in slightly different ways to allow use direct control and versatility in our JavaScript code.

    The apply and call methods are almost identical when setting the this value except that you pass the function parameters to apply () as an array, while you have to list the parameters individually to pass them to the call () method.

    Here is one example to use call or apply to set this in the callback function.

    // Define an object with some properties and a method?
    // We will later pass the method as a callback function to another function?
    var clientData = {
        id: 094545,
        fullName: "Not Set",
        // setUserName is a method on the clientData object?
        setUserName: function (firstName, lastName)  {
            // this refers to the fullName property in this object?
            this.fullName = firstName + " " + lastName;
        }
    };
    
    function getUserInput (firstName, lastName, callback, callbackObj) {
         // The use of the Apply method below will set the "this" value to callbackObj?
         callback.apply (callbackObj, [firstName, lastName]);
    }
    
    // The clientData object will be used by the Apply method to set the "this" value?
    getUserInput ("Barack", "Obama", clientData.setUserName, clientData);
    // the fullName property on the clientData was correctly set?
    console.log (clientData.fullName); // Barack Obama
    
  • Borrow functions with apply or call

    • Borrow Array methods

      Let’s create an array-like object and borrow some array methods to operate on the our array-like object.

      // An array-like object: note the non-negative integers used as keys?
      var anArrayLikeObj = {0:"Martin", 1:78, 2:67, 3:["Letta", "Marieta", "Pauline"], length:4 };
      
       // Make a quick copy and save the results in a real array:
       // First parameter sets the "this" value?
       var newArray = Array.prototype.slice.call (anArrayLikeObj, 0);
       console.log (newArray); // ["Martin", 78, 67, Array[3]]?
      
       // Search for "Martin" in the array-like object?
       console.log (Array.prototype.indexOf.call (anArrayLikeObj, "Martin") === -1 ? false : true); // true?
      

      Another common case is that convert arguments to array as following

        // We do not define the function with any parameters, yet we can get all the arguments passed to it?
       function doSomething () {
          var args = Array.prototype.slice.call (arguments);
          console.log (args);
       }
      
       doSomething ("Water", "Salt", "Glue"); // ["Water", "Salt", "Glue"]
      
    • Borrow other methods

      var gameController = {
           scores  :[20, 34, 55, 46, 77],
           avgScore:null,
           players :[
                {name:"Tommy", playerID:987, age:23},
                {name:"Pau", playerID:87, age:33}
           ]
       }
       var appController = {
           scores  :[900, 845, 809, 950],
           avgScore:null,
           avg     :function () {
                   var sumOfScores = this.scores.reduce (function (prev, cur, index, array) {
                        return prev + cur;
               });
               this.avgScore = sumOfScores / this.scores.length;
           }
         }
         // Note that we are using the apply () method, so the 2nd argument has to be an array?
         appController.avg.apply (gameController);
         console.log (gameController.avgScore); // 46.4?
         // appController.avgScore is still null; it was not updated, only gameController.avgScore was updated?
         console.log (appController.avgScore); // null?
      
  • Use apply() to execute variable-arity function

The Math.max is one example of variable-arity function,

// We can pass any number of arguments to the Math.max () method?
console.log (Math.max (23, 11, 34, 56)); // 56

But what if we have an array of numbers to pass to Math.max? We cannot do this:

var allNumbers = [23, 11, 34, 56];
// We cannot pass an array of numbers to the the Math.max method like this?
console.log (Math.max (allNumbers)); // NaN

This is where the apply () method helps us execute variadic functions. Instead of the above, we have to pass the array of numbers using apply () thus:

var allNumbers = [23, 11, 34, 56];
// Using the apply () method, we can pass the array of numbers:
console.log (Math.max.apply (null, allNumbers)); // 56
Answer

call/apply executes function immediately:

func.call(context, arguments);
func.apply(context, [argument1,argument2,..]);

bind doesn't execute function immediately, but returns wrapped apply function (for later execution):

function bind(func, context) {
    return function() {
        return func.apply(context, arguments);
    };
}
Answer

Syntax

  • call(thisArg, arg1, arg2, ...)
  • apply(thisArg, argsArray)
  • bind(thisArg[, arg1[, arg2[, ...]]])

Here

  • thisArg is the object
  • argArray is an array object
  • arg1, arg2, arg3,... are additional arguments

function printBye(message1, message2){
    console.log(message1 + " " + this.name + " "+ message2);
}

var par01 = { name:"John" };
var msgArray = ["Bye", "Never come again..."];

printBye.call(par01, "Bye", "Never come again...");
//Bye John Never come again...

printBye.call(par01, msgArray);
//Bye,Never come again... John undefined

//so call() doesn't work with array and better with comma seperated parameters 

//printBye.apply(par01, "Bye", "Never come again...");//Error

printBye.apply(par01, msgArray);
//Bye John Never come again...

var func1 = printBye.bind(par01, "Bye", "Never come again...");
func1();//Bye John Never come again...

var func2 = printBye.bind(par01, msgArray);
func2();//Bye,Never come again... John undefined
//so bind() doesn't work with array and better with comma seperated parameters

Answer

The basic difference between Call, Apply and Bind are:

Bind will be used if you want your execution context to come later in the picture.

Ex:

var car = { 
  registrationNumber: "007",
  brand: "Mercedes",

  displayDetails: function(ownerName){
    console.log(ownerName + ' this is your car ' + '' + this.registrationNumber + " " + this.brand);
  }
}
car.displayDetails('Nishant'); // **Nishant this is your car 007 Mercedes**

Let's say i want use this method in some other variable

var car1 = car.displayDetails('Nishant');
car1(); // undefined

To use the reference of car in some other variable you should use

var car1 = car.displayDetails.bind(car, 'Nishant');
car1(); // Nishant this is your car 007 Mercedes

Let's talk about more extensive use of bind function

var func = function() {
 console.log(this)
}.bind(1);

func();
// Number: 1

Why? Because now func is bind with Number 1, if we don't use bind in that case it will point to Global Object.

var func = function() {
 console.log(this)
}.bind({});

func();
// Object

Call, Apply are used when you want to execute the statement at the same time.

var Name = { 
    work: "SSE",
    age: "25"
}

function displayDetails(ownerName) {
    console.log(ownerName + ", this is your name: " + 'age' + this.age + " " + 'work' + this.work);
}
displayDetails.call(Name, 'Nishant')
// Nishant, this is your name: age25 workSSE

In apply we pass the array
displayDetails.call(Name, ['Nishant'])
// Nishant, this is your name: age25 workSSE
Answer

Call apply and bind. and how they are different.

Lets learn call and apply using any daily terminology.

You have three automobiles your_scooter , your_car and your_jet which start with the same mechanism (method). We created an object automobile with a method push_button_engineStart.

var your_scooter, your_car, your_jet;
var automobile = {
        push_button_engineStart: function (runtime){
        console.log(this.name + "'s" + ' engine_started, buckle up for the ride for ' + runtime + " minutes");
    }
}

Lets understand when is call and apply used. Lets suppose that you are an engineer and you have your_scooter, your_car and your_jet which did not come with a push_button_engine_start and you wish to use a third party push_button_engineStart.

If you run the following lines of code, they will give an error. WHY?

//your_scooter.push_button_engineStart();
//your_car.push_button_engineStart();
//your_jet.push_button_engineStart();


automobile.push_button_engineStart.apply(your_scooter,[20]);
automobile.push_button_engineStart.call(your_jet,10);
automobile.push_button_engineStart.call(your_car,40);

So the above example is successfully gives your_scooter, your_car, your_jet a feature from automobile object.

Let's dive deeper Here we will split the above line of code. automobile.push_button_engineStart is helping us to get the method being used.

Further we use apply or call using the dot notation. automobile.push_button_engineStart.apply()

Now apply and call accept two parameters.

  1. context
  2. arguments

So here we set the context in the final line of code.

automobile.push_button_engineStart.apply(your_scooter,[20])

Difference between call and apply is just that apply accepts parameters in the form of an array while call simply can accept a comma separated list of arguments.

what is JS Bind function?

A bind function is basically which binds the context of something and then stores it into a variable for execution at a later stage.

Let's make our previous example even better. Earlier we used a method belonging to the automobile object and used it to equip your_car, your_jet and your_scooter. Now lets imagine we want to give a separate push_button_engineStart separately to start our automobiles individually at any later stage of the execution we wish.

var scooty_engineStart = automobile.push_button_engineStart.bind(your_scooter);
var car_engineStart = automobile.push_button_engineStart.bind(your_car);
var jet_engineStart = automobile.push_button_engineStart.bind(your_jet);


setTimeout(scooty_engineStart,5000,30);
setTimeout(car_engineStart,10000,40);
setTimeout(jet_engineStart,15000,5);

still not satisfied?

Let's make it clear as teardrop. Time to experiment. We will go back to call and apply function application and try storing the value of the function as a reference.

The experiment below fails because call and apply are invoked immediately, hence, we never get to the stage of storing a reference in a variable which is where bind function steals the show

var test_function = automobile.push_button_engineStart.apply(your_scooter);

Answer

Call: call invokes the function and allows you to pass arguments one by one

Apply: Apply invokes the function and allows you to pass arguments as an array

Bind: Bind returns a new function, allowing you to pass in a this array and any number of arguments.

var person1 = {firstName: 'Raju', lastName: 'king'};
var person2 = {firstName: 'chandu', lastName: 'shekar'};

function greet(greeting) {
    console.log(greeting + ' ' + this.firstName + ' ' + this.lastName);
}
function greet2(greeting) {
        console.log( 'Hello ' + this.firstName + ' ' + this.lastName);
    }


greet.call(person1, 'Hello'); // Hello Raju king
greet.call(person2, 'Hello'); // Hello chandu shekar



greet.apply(person1, ['Hello']); // Hello Raju king
greet.apply(person2, ['Hello']); // Hello chandu shekar

var greetRaju = greet2.bind(person1);
var greetChandu = greet2.bind(person2);

greetRaju(); // Hello Raju king
greetChandu(); // Hello chandu shekar

Answer

Imagine, bind is not available. you can easily construct it as follow :

var someFunction=...
var objToBind=....

var bindHelper =  function (someFunction, objToBind) {
    return function() {
        someFunction.apply( objToBind, arguments );
    };  
}

bindHelper(arguments);
Answer
    function sayHello() {
            //alert(this.message);
            return this.message;
    }
    var obj = {
            message: "Hello"
    };

    function x(country) {
            var z = sayHello.bind(obj);
            setTimeout(y = function(w) {
//'this' reference not lost
                    return z() + ' ' + country + ' ' + w;
            }, 1000);
            return y;
    }
    var t = x('India')('World');
    document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = t;
Answer

call() :-- Here we pass the function arguments individually, not in an array format

var obj = {name: "Raushan"};

var greeting = function(a,b,c) {
    return "Welcome "+ this.name + " to "+ a + " " + b + " in " + c;
};

console.log(greeting.call(obj, "USA", "INDIA", "ASIA"));

apply() :-- Here we pass the function arguments in an array format

var obj = {name: "Raushan"};

var cal = function(a,b,c) {
    return this.name +" you got " + a+b+c;
};

var arr =[1,2,3];  // array format for function arguments
console.log(cal.apply(obj, arr)); 

bind() :--

       var obj = {name: "Raushan"};

       var cal = function(a,b,c) {
            return this.name +" you got " + a+b+c;
       };

       var calc = cal.bind(obj);
       console.log(calc(2,3,4));
Answer

I think the same places of them are: all of them can change the this value of a function.The differences of them are: the bind function will return a new function as a result; the call and apply methods will execute the function immediately, but apply can accept a array as params,and it will parse the array separated.And also, the bind function can be Currying.

Answer

bind function should be use when we want to assign a function with particular context for eg.

var demo = {
           getValue : function(){ 
             console.log('demo object get value       function') 
            }
           setValue : function(){  
              setTimeout(this.getValue.bind(this),1000)           
           }
 }

in above example if we call demo.setValue() function and pass this.getValue function directly then it doesn't call demo.setValue function directly because this in setTimeout refers to window object so we need to pass demo object context to this.getValue function using bind. it means we only passing function with the context of demo object not actully calling function.

Hope u understand .

for more information please refer javascript bind function know in detail

Answer

JavaScript Call()

const person = {
    name: "Lokamn",
    dob: 12,
    print: function (value,value2) {
        console.log(this.dob+value+value2)
    }
}
const anotherPerson= {
     name: "Pappu",
     dob: 12,
}
 person.print.call(anotherPerson,1,2)

JavaScript apply()

    name: "Lokamn",
    dob: 12,
    print: function (value,value2) {
        console.log(this.dob+value+value2)
    }
}
const anotherPerson= {
     name: "Pappu",
     dob: 12,
}
 person.print.apply(anotherPerson,[1,2])

**call and apply function are difference call take separate argument but apply take array like:[1,2,3] **

JavaScript bind()

    name: "Lokamn",
    dob: 12,
    anotherPerson: {
        name: "Pappu",
        dob: 12,
        print2: function () {
            console.log(this)
        }
    }
}

var bindFunction = person.anotherPerson.print2.bind(person)
 bindFunction()
Answer

The main concept behind all this methods is Function burrowing.

Function borrowing allows us to use the methods of one object on a different object without having to make a copy of that method and maintain it in two separate places. It is accomplished through the use of . call() , . apply() , or . bind() , all of which exist to explicitly set this on the method we are borrowing

  1. Call invokes the function immediately and allows you to pass in arguments one by one
  2. Apply invokes the function immediately and allows you to pass in arguments as an array.
  3. Bind returns a new function, and you can invoke/call it anytime you want by invoking a function.

Below is an example of all this methods

let name =  {
    firstname : "Arham",
    lastname : "Chowdhury",
}
printFullName =  function(hometown,company){
    console.log(this.firstname + " " + this.lastname +", " + hometown + ", " + company)
}

CALL

the first argument e.g name inside call method is always a reference to (this) variable and latter will be function variable

printFullName.call(name,"Mumbai","Taufa");     //Arham Chowdhury, Mumbai, Taufa

APPLY

apply method is same as the call method the only diff is that, the function arguments are passed in Array list

printFullName.apply(name, ["Mumbai","Taufa"]);     //Arham Chowdhury, Mumbai, Taufa

BIND

bind method is same as call except that ,the bind returns a function that can be used later by invoking it (does'nt call it immediately)

let printMyNAme = printFullName.bind(name,"Mumbai","Taufa");

printMyNAme();      //Arham Chowdhury, Mumbai, Taufa

printMyNAme() is the function which invokes the function

below is the link for jsfiddle

https://codepen.io/Arham11/pen/vYNqExp

Answer

Use bind for future calls to the function. Both apply and call invoke the function.

bind() also allows for additional arguments to be perpended to the args array.

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_objects/Function/bind

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